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Dear Friends
Here is the Hughes Paper. There are two sections of the written test. First is the general aptitude test(30 ques) (generally it is the quantitative aptitude . R.S. Agrawal (non-verbal and quantitative) should be done.
 Second is the technical section(u can attempt either electronics or computer one). There are good C, C++, Java questions in the Computer section and microprocessor, computer architecture and C, Java questions in Electronics section.
 They declare the result within an hour or two. Then the interview is as per the schedule. The interview is the technical one. They ask C, C++, datastructures questions and final year project in detail.
         It consist of two section part A and B or C
         For CSE student part A & B is better.
         Here i am writting some Questions from part A and B for CSE student
         Questions are not in order.
         f(char *p)
         p[0]? f(++p):1;
         if call that fuction with f(Aabcd) what is the output??
         ans:dcbaA (Just reversing the string
         f(char *p)
         p=(char *)malloc(sizeof(6));
         char *p="BYE";
         what is the o/p???
3 To sorting array of 10 elements which sorting is best
         c)tree sort
         4 To saving space paoint of view which sort is best
         c)both a & b
         d)...      check it once.U Can easy Aanswer this question(UCA)
         5  Which statement is wrong on heap
         a)Any two childs should not same
6 one more question on heap 
         7 read about cyclometric complexity..

 8 how many null pointer are there in N number binary tree
         9 Two sorted list of size n what are the maximum comparison in merge

 10 converting 41.685 to binary

 11 pc is incremented while executing ---------- instruction
         ans:fetch instruction
         12 this is gates (NAND)problem
         It means some gate figure has given with all NAND gate we have write
         equavalent gate
         ans:OR gate
         13 x:validating :Are we producing product right
         y:verification:Are we producing right right
         a)X is wrong statement
         b)y is "
         c)x and Y "
         d)x & y is right statement
         14 NFS some queston in NSF.
         see distibuted operation System book by tenaun bamab

 15. IP & IPX is implemented in trasport layer.All our friends can answer this question .Here i am unable to recall that question.  

         16 comparison between hashtable and binary tree
         17 client server is working in asyn mode then how communication will         take place bt client and server.
         18 once context swithing occures then ------------will take place
         a)saving register b)saving stack c).. d)..
         19 If precondition is failed what u say about postcondition?
         Note:Read about preconditon and postcondition
         20 whiling download java applete then web broswer do the folling
         a)checking the class structure.. b)..c).. d)..
         Read about this
         21 Strings in Java
         a)Mutable b)variable length string c).. d)..
         22 in Internet Transprot layer which is not a protocol
         a)/etc/host b)TCP c)UDP d)..
         23 Which is not specified in CODD's rules

         It is from DBMS question
         Refer NAVATHI BOOK chapter -9 appendx topic is CODDE's rules
         24 what is the use of Normalization

         25 Functional dependecy x->y is shows that
         a)if x1=x2 then y1=y2 b).. c).. d).. ans:a
         26 one question on IP addsress some thing

         27 If A sends a message to B with encryption then key is
         a)A public key b)B public key c)A private key d)B private key ans:b 
 28 In a class only declaration of the function is there but defintion is not there then what is that function
         ans:virtual function
         29 what is not necessary condition in dead lock
         30 One question from multible inheritance...

         31) ICV protocal
         32) one question from catches like write-through protocal etc
         33)catche access time is 100ns ,memory access time is 1000ns and hit         ratio
         is 0.9 then what is average memery access time
         a)100ns b)200ns c)400ns d)500ns ans:b
         SECTION C:
         1.an lead compensator zero is at Z=Zc, pole is at P=Pc then the following is correct
         a.Pc >Zc,pc<0,zcy in a relation R, x1 and x2 are in x, y1 and y2 are in         y
         (question not cleared), about functional dependancy
 a.x1=x2 and y1=y2          b.         c.

2. gain margin of g(s)h(s)=1/s(s+k);
a.    sqrt(1+k2)          b.   0             c.    infinity       d.    1

3. machestor code does not improves
 a. clock recovery         b. bandwidth efficiency       c.

4. possion distribution is used for
a. used in FSM     b.
c.used for queuing delay system of mutually identical events of arrival
d. both a and c

5. no.of filpflops for mod 11 counter 
   a.  four         b.  five         c.

6. no.of filpflops for mod 11 counter
 a.  four         b.  five         c.

7. if even parity is used for parity generation, what is the hamming distance (simple fig is given) ans:2

8. the code set is {00000,00111,11100,11011} what is the error detecting and correcting capability?

9. operational amp characteristics following is correct:
 1. input impedance is 0         2. output impedance is infinity
 3. input impedance is infinity     4. gain is infinity  which combinations are correc

10. band pass signal having frequencies 2.5k and 4.5k?give the sampling freq 
 a.  9k       b.  4k       c.  4.5k          d.  7k

11. definition of avalanche diode multiplication

12. more no of ripples are present in the diagram?which is correct                      
a.   lower order filter      b.   high order filter      c.  

13. If CPU have one interrupt pin and on to connect with external devices with some priority? which type of the following is used?
a. parallel priority interrupt    b. daisy chain     c. RS filpflop    d.

14. one megabit file transfer, serially on 9600 baud one start bit and two stop bits, then how much time it takes (approx)
a.   4 hours     b.   2 hours     c.   20 minutes     d.   2 minute

15. IEEE 802.5 is  ans: TOKEN RING

16. Code sequence is given what is the error correcting distance

17. bit stuffing used in HDLC Protocol for ans: b is correct(read on text book)

Section A  AND B  (Both are mixed )

1. If "AaBbCc" is passed to the char
 char x(*a)
  return 1;
  } what will be the output?

2. f(*p)
  p=(char *)malloc(6);
    char *p="bye";
       what is the o/p? ans:bye

3. when the program counter is incremented in the instruction cycle
a. fetch cycle      b. int cycle       c. execuation cycle      d.

4. two sorted lists of n elements will take at least fine the order of complexity?
a.  2n         b.  n/2       c.  square(n)

5. logic diagram is given? find the expression ans: OR gate

6. question on JAVA string ans: string ends without a null character

7. cache access time is 100ns. main memory access time is 1000ns, hit ratio is .9, find mean access time?
ans :200ns

8. which is not suitable to find out IP address ans:ARP

9. about deadlock condition

10. convert 41.6875 into binary

11. read about IP AND IPX

12. read about NFS

13. DHCP is
 a. for routing      b. for network address conversion     c. for diagnosis       d.

14. execution phase can be
a. pipelined   b. no parallelism is possible     c. vector processing    d.

15. In public key algorithm , A wants to send message to B ..... which key is used
a.  A public key     b.  A private key    c.  B public key     d.  B private key

16. to prevent replay attacks in transmission
 a.   symmetric encoding          b.   Asymmetric encoding
 c.    for every exchange, key should be changed

17. irtual functionality is used in C++
  a.   dynamic binding    b.   if the derived func is present but base class not present    c.

18. if there are n nodes in a binary tree, how many null pointers are there ans:n+1;

19. if heap sort contains n elements, no of comparsions required are
   a. log(n)       b. height of heap sort         c.           d.

20. question on ICV(integrity check)

21. which of the following is efficient in terms of space
  a. insertion sort         b. quick sort      c. selection     d. both a and c

22. in 32 bit representation, the range of numbers in 2's complement form 
ans :-2 to the power of 31 to 2 to the power of 31 minus 1

23. about normalization

24. socket is implemented in TCP Layer. which of the following is related to TCP layer      ans: port number

25. in reentrant procedure, which should be not used for passing parameters?
a. passed by reg     b. by direct         c. by indirect       d. by stack

26. flow control is used for
a. congestion at receiver     b.     c.      d.

27. flow control is used for 
a. congestion at receiver     b.     c.      d.

28. 5 questions on DBMS are there

29. in global static variable , declartion in a file
a.   localization of scope    b.   persistance of the value through out the file c.  d.

30. in sorted table contains elements , which of the searching is false
a. hash table      b. binary searching

31. in demand paging overhead of context switching is more due to
a. copy processes from disk to memory   b. viceversa
c. to get associative table      d. swapping to the disk

32. when write through is better than write back(related to cache memory)

33. which is false when normalization is used?can't express

34. I :verification: are we doing right product
     II: validation:are we doing product right
a. i and ii are true     b. i and ii are false    c. i true and ii false   d. i false and ii true

35. A table contains less than 10 elements which one is fastest
 a. bubble sort    b. selection sort    c. quick sort

36.about subroutine, precondition is false. what about post condition
 a. post condition is not defined  b. post condition is always true       c.      d.

37. When static variables are used, which one of the following is not possible?
a. dynamic run time     b.      c.

38.in product of x and y,
       (not cleared)
what is cyclometric complexity?
a. 3   b. 2   c. 1     d. 0

The above SQL statement is correct or not? (question is not cleared)

40. path testing is
a. white box     b. black box    c. installation test     d. environment test

41. program is given?
above algorithm represents what type of search?
 a.   binary search      b.   interpolation search      c.   sequential search
 d.  (may be "b" is correct);

42. if x->y in a relation R, x1 and x2 are in x, y1 and y2 are in y (question not cleared), about functional dependancy
a.x1=x2 and y1=y2    b.   c.

43. in a down loading from website ,which one is correct?
         ans: check the byte code and indicate the error, if any.

         44. about UDP one Address is given but that is not the state table
         what will it do the packet
         a. packet is discarded
         b. packet is sent to ethernet server
         c. packet is sent to other address

         45. in associated memory for fast accessing
         which one is used
         a. single linked list
         b. double "
         c. hash table

         ******************Hughes paper in DCE************
         All ques. had four options.
         1- What is max. no. of hops in hypercube n/w with n (=2 ^ p) to go from         one node to another ?
 a. p                b. log p                c. n ^ 2

         2- What is Kerberos ?
ans. Authentication Protocol

         3-In completely connected multiprocessor system with n processors , links will be of the order of
 a. O(n ^ 2)        b. O(2 ^ n)         c. O(n/2)

         4-When quick sort gives worst performance ?
         ans. When elements are in order.

         5- o/p of each sorting step of 8 elements was given and had to recognise         which sorting algo.?
         Ans. Bubble sort (Not Sure , Check it out )

         6-In worst case ,which sort is best out of following sorts?
 a.heap               b.selection         c.quick (ans.)         d. insertion

 7-Three very simple gate circuits each having inputs A,B,C,D were given and had to tell ,which two give same result ? (DeMorgan's Law was used in solving )
         Ans was (a) &(c) (o/p of a & c was coming to be AB +CD)
8-K-map given,had to tell simplified function
         Ans was perhaps AB+AD +AC+BCD
          K-Map was
         AB 0 0 0 0
         0 0 1 0
         1 1 1 1
         0 1 1 1
         9-What is Function Point ?
         Ans. S/W estimation technique

         10-p points to an integer. We don't want p to change value. In C, what         declarations will we use?
 A const int *p            b.int *p        c.int const *p         e. int* const p (perhaps ans.)

         11-Diff between 2NF &3NF ?
         Ans. D (last option)

         12.Which does not use client server model ?
 a. Email            b. Web access         c. C. Telephone call        d. N/w file system

         13-In a pipeline having 3 stages, each having reliability of 0.9, what is overall reliability of pipeline?
 a. 0.9                 b. 0.729                  c. 0.81

14-2level cacheis there first level cache's access time is 100ns,second level cache's access time is 33ns & memory access time is 1000 ns. What is total memory access time ?
         ans. 140 ns

         15-In public key cryptography,Awillsend message to B
         ans. Using B's public key

         16-What does projection of a relation give?
         Ans.gives vertical partition of relation corresponding to specified         columns.

         17-For disk or direct access storage, which is best ?
         a. AVL
         b. B-tree
         c. Red tape ..

 18-There is a tree with inorder threading Node B is inserted as left child of nade A. Node A already has right child . Where will the null ptr of B point ?
         ans. Parent of A (perhaps)

         19-There is a diskless workstation. Which will be the first protocol it         will use ?
 a FTP         b. ARP        c. HTTP          d. RARP

         20-Compiler keeps which of following ?
          ans. Symbol table

         21- 'ping' command uses which protocol ?
         ans. ICMP

         22-Merge sort uses which technique?
         Ans. Divide and Conquer

         23-Program counter is incremented in
 a. fetch (ans)           b. decode           c. execute

         24-what does the following program do ?
         f(int n)
         int c;
         print c;
         ans. Program prints the no. of set bits in no.

         25-What is this called (char *) (*(*(*A[X]) ( ) )) ( )
 ans. Array of X pointers to a function returning pointer to functions that are returning pointer to char (not sure )

         26- For synchronisation in distributed computing, what should not be         there ?
         a. all machines are synchronised by a global clock
         b. all systems should have their own clock (perhaps ans)

         27-Java applet of a moving /waving file is running on one machine then         it means
         a.Java's executable code is downloaded and running on the m/c
         b.A virtual X server is running on that m/c while the actual program is         running on the web server.

         28-What is in RSA algo. ?
         a. First the session key is encrypted & then whole message is encrypted         using RSA Algo.
         b. Message is encrypted using RsA algo.
         c. First Rsa algo is used &then encrypted with the session key.

         29-What is dirty read?
         a. Transaction reexecutes and gives diff. Results from the original         execution
         b. Read is done when the transaction is not yet committed
         30-What is coupling ?
         a. It tells the strength of interconnection between two program units.

         31-Any n/w on the computer can have only
 a. one domain &one IP            b. more than one domain & more than one Ip
 c. one domain and more than one IP           d. more than one domain & one IP

         32-Which one does not have file descriptor ?
 a. process       b. keyboard         c. pipe             d. socket

         33-What does CONNECT BY means
 a.connect to a different databaser for retreival       b.arrange in tree ordered structure

         34-In two phase commit protocol, why log is used during transmission         &reception ?
         a. To retrieve the status in case of crash

         35-In which algo. Waiting time is minimun?
         Ans, SJF

         36-How many address bits are there in Ipv6
         ans. 128 bits

         37-During run time heap is managed by
         a. a user process in kernel mode
         b. A system process manages heap for all the processes
         c. A system process for each process
         d. A user process in user mode

         38-In which of following search is efficient?
         a. height balanced tree
         b. Weight balanced tree
         c. Binary tree

         39.A ques. on resource relocation, sharing ( I don't remember more 
         than this regarding this ques.)

         40-some ques. options were sth like
 a. transparency control       b. Migration control         c. Concurrency control

         41-X:In DFD, input is converted into output by passing through various         functional units
         Y:DFD cannot be used in object oriented design
 a. both X& y are correct                b. both X & Y are incorrect
 c. X correct, Y incorrect                d. Xincorrect, Y correct

         42-Where regression testing is used ?
 a. Dynamic analysers                 b. Loaders

         43-For Java interfaces , what is true ?
         a. Functions declarations are not given'       b. Variables are not declared
         c. Instance variables are not used

         44-In a linked list, we can delete a node in order of
 a. 1               b. n            c. n ^ 2

         45-If there are N people and we have to do symmetric & asymmetric 
         cryptography, how many keys would be used in these cases respectively?
         a. N & N ^ 2 (probably ans)
         b. N ^ 2 & N
         c. N & N
         d. N ^ 2 & N ^2

          46-The protected element of a class can't be accessed by
         a. member functions of the same class
         b. member functions of the derived class
         c. member functions of any other class in the same program (Ans.)

         47-NFS uses same file structure as unix

         48-To solve an expression which of following trees will you use  ?
         a. postfix               b. infix
Here are some questions of Hughes software system computer part:-

Q.1 void x(char* a)
return 1;
          Input string 'a' is assigned as AaBbCc , what is the output?
          Q2 a question on digital gates ANS is OR gate.
          Q3 what is the binary representation of 41.6785
          Q4 if the precondition for a subroutine does not hold then 
          1.postcondition does not hold 
          2.postcondition may or may not hold
          3. ?
          4. ?
 Q5. In java 
          1. java strings are mutable. And some other options on java strings
          Q6. Void f(char *p)
          p = (char*)malloc(6);
          void main( )
          char *p = "BYE";

Q7. A question on write through and write back algo.

 Q8. What is concerned with transport layer.

 Q9. A server can work with ip and ipx protocol.how the server will determine to which protocol the incoming packet coresponds .

 Q10. For which purpose dhcp is used ANS ip address

 Q11 global vaariable defined as ststic will serve the purpose of ---

 Q12 Question on NFS ANS It uses the same semantics as unix for file system

 Q13. Program counter is incremented typically in which uses ANS fetch

 Q14 NO of NULL pointers in a tree with n leaf nodes ANS N+1

 Q15.thread take less time than process context Why? Ans. Address space         is

 Q.16 Which algo is best for sorting 10 elements?
Ans. 1> binary tree 2> selection 3> bubble 4> none

 Q.17 a question on ICV(networking)
a) When A sends an ICV and message, B computes ICV , checks It with         given
ICV,and decodes Message
b) Similar other

 Q.18 When server A sends a time request to server B, (time synchronization), and response becomes past, What does A do?
a) resets its own clock
b) resends time request again

Q.19 in public key encryption what does A do such that It is not         visible to others?
a) A uses public key part of A
b) A uses private key part of A
c) A uses public key part of B
d) A uses private key part of B

 Q.20 function dependency can be described as:

 Q.21 q. on findind cyclometric complexity of the given program
1> 7 2>5 3> 4 4> 0

 Q.22 Codd's rule related to database 

 Q.23 path testing comes under
A) white box 
B) black box

 Q.24 when an ip address is not in the computer adresss resolution file what does It do with that packet
a)Ignores It
c) sends It to default gateway
d) sends It to ethernet server

 Q.25 execution divided in different stages then this is called ANS. Pipelining

 Q.26 in C the macros are
ANS. converted in to inline code during preprocessing 

Q.27 X: verification means doing the right things Y: validation means doing things right
a) both true
b) both false
c) one true one correct

 Q.28 void insert (key, r)
Keytype key, data
          if (n>=max)
          Which is best?
          1> sequential search
 Q.29 which is best for associative list searching?
          1) single linked list
          2) doubly linked list
          3) hash table
 Q.30 A question based on SQL ?
          Q.31 which is not necessary condition for deadlock?
          1> mutual exclusion
          2> no preemption
          3> is ANS.
          4> Circular wait
         From Venky..

1. a processor has two level cache.Their access time (level1 and level2) is 100ns and 300ns respect.Memeory access time is 1000ns$
         ==> ans is 140 (b)
         ==> 2.diskless server uses
         ==> a rarp
         ==> b arp
         ==> c ftp
         ==> d.telnet
         ==> ans rarp
         ==> 3.which one of them is not a client server
         ==> e-mail
         ==> telephone
         ==> webserver
         ==> and one more
         ==> ans is e-mail or telephone.
         ==> 4.Which one is used to represent operations
         ==> infix
         ==> postfix
         ==> binarytree
         ==> and one more
         ==> ans binary tree 
         ==> 5.one qustion was on private key and public key.The quest. was 
         if a wants to send a message to b that no one other that b should $
         ==> A private key
         ==> A public key
         ==> B private key
         ==> B public key
         ==> 6.compliers maintain
         ==> ans is symbol table 

         From Diwakar..
1) what a java interface not have ?
         ans - instance variables
         2) what is done with java code on a web-page
         ans - downloaded and executed on ur pc
         3) what is the order of deleting a node from a linked list given a ptr to it 
         ans O(n) ( since u have to traverse the list to reach the prev. node)
         3) what is RSA
         4) how can A send a messageto B so that B knows its from A 
         ans A uses his private key so that B can use A's public key
         5) what is the best sort in worst case
         ans heap sort
         6) what is the given sorting
         ans selection ( check it )
         7) what can access protected memebers of a class
         ans other classes of that program
         8) what protocol is used by a machine to map an ip to hardware address
         ans arp
         9) what is the size of ipv6
         ans 128 bits
         10) what protocol has ping 
         ans icmp
         11) how many keys are needed in symmetric and asymmetric crptography?
         12) one on a right threaded tree
         13) very easy k-map 
         ans i think its b)
         14) very easy ckt 
         ans choice which has option : a&c are equivalent
         15) what in unix doesnt have a fd
         ans process ( this was the first ques ).
 Regarding Hughes
 paper they conducted two tests. Both were technical(no aptitude test).  First one was compulsory for everybody. In second one could opt for electronics or computers. In all i suppose there were 50 questions.  And just before interview you were supposed to fill up a performa which they call Behavioural Test. This was to check you interpersonal skills and socialising capabilities. Questions like - would you like to be elected leaders of organising committees, do you like peoply express their agonies to you, do you wish people be close to you type questions were repeated in one and the other form.
         Interview was technical as well as personal. CGPA did count - it seems.
         They selected 8 people from here. BTW what's your current CGPA and         what's
         the strength of your class. Do they come for B.Tech and M.Tech separatel
         as the case here is or it's all at once.
         Questions :
         1.If a precondition of a sub routine fails then
         a. post condition fails as well
         b. Post condition may fail
         c. post condition is declared but now defined.
         2. whatz the o/p of the following program
          char * a= "AabbCc";
         void x(char *a)
         a[0] == 0 ? x(a+1):1;
         return 1; 
a. AaBbCc
         b. cCbBaA
         3. What is DHCP used for?
         4. There are 2protocols IP and IPX are running on top of Ethernet.         Suppose
         a packet addressed to that ethernt card arrives, to which protocol the
         ethernet sends the packet?
         1. It checks the payload of the frame and finds out the protocol type         and
         despatches it to the right protocol
         2. It fins out the protocol type that is mentioned in the ethernet         frame.
         3. despatches to both the protocol
         5. What is the use of global static variable in C?
         6. In which stage of the compilation the Macro in C are converted into
         Iline code? (this is not the exact Qn a slight variation of it)
         7 In the IP/Ethernet network, a packet with destination address arrives and there is no entry for this address in the         routing
         table of the m/c? what does the m/c do about the packe
 a. discards the packet.      b. Brodacasts into the ethernet.      c. sends to default router
         8. in Public key Encryption , if A wants to send a encrypted msg to B         then
         A encrypts the message with 
 a. A's public key         2. A Pvt key         c. B's public key       d. B's Pvt key
         9. consider the SQL statement "Create table New as select * from         oldtable"
         a. the sql stament is a correct one      b. New is reservd word there is an error
         c. you can't select anything while creating a table
10. By Codd's defn for RDBMS whih one is not right?
         options , I don't remeber
         11. If X and Y are two attriubutes of a relation and 1 and 2 be any two
         tuples in that relation
         Y is fuctionally dpndant on X iff (X->Y)
          a. if (x1 == x2) then y1==y2
         b. if (x1==y1) then x2 == y2
         someother combinations
         12.The normalization process 
         1.reduces the data redundancy
         2.It reduces the inconsistency that arises due to the data redundancy
         13. ((A nand A) nand (B Nand B)) = ?
         a. A+B
         The question was not exactly in this form. gates represented pictorilly
         14. whtz the purpose of flow control?
         1. to control errors 
2 . to control congession the receiving end
         3. to sequnce the out of sequence packets
         15. Whic is false about Java strings
         1. The are Null terminated
         2. Set of Chars
         3. The Condition checking == and = on a sme pair of strings gives
         different results.
         16. When a java Applet is downloaded what does it do?
         Don't remeber the options
         it's went something like this:
         1. checks the magic nubmer
         17. Whatz is the Cyclometic complexity of the following code
         don't remember the code exactly

 1 :a machine A wants to set it's time same as a a machine B so it sends a packet to B and b sends reply.but the time on packet is over by the ti


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